Therapeutic Effects of Olive and Its Derivatives on Osteoarthritis: From Bench to Bedside.
Chin KY1, Pang KL2.
Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play important roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Olive and its derivatives, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and autophagy-enhancing activities, are suitable candidates for therapeutic interventions for osteoarthritis. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of olive and its derivatives, on osteoarthritis and chondrocytes. The literature on animal and human studies has demonstrated a beneficial effect of olive and its derivatives on the progression of osteoarthritis. In vitro studies have suggested that the augmentation of autophagy (though sirtuin-1) and suppression of inflammation by olive polyphenols could contribute to the chondroprotective effects of olive polyphenols. More research and well-planned clinical trials are required to justify the use of olive-based treatment in osteoarthritis.
Oleocanthal exerts antitumor effects on human liver and colon cancer cells through ROS generation.
Cusimano A1, Balasus D1, Azzolina A1, Augello G1, Emma MR1, Di Sano C1, Gramignoli R2, Strom SC2, McCubrey JA3, Montalto G1, Cervello M1.
The beneficial health properties of the Mediter-ranean diet are well recognized. The principle source of fat in Mediterranean diet is extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Oleocanthal (OC) is a naturally occurring minor phenolic compound isolated from EVOO, which has shown a potent anti-inflammatory activity, by means of its ability to inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes COX-1 and COX-2. A large body of evidence indicates that phenols exhibit anticancer activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential anticancer effects of OC in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) models. A panel of human HCC (HepG2, Huh7, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5) and CRC (HT29, SW480) cell lines was used. Cells were treated with OC, and cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated. Compared with classical commercially available COX inhibitors (ibuprofen, indomethacin, nimesulide), OC was more effective in inducing cell growth inhibition in HCC and CRC cells. Moreover, OC inhibited colony formation and induced apoptosis, as confirmed by PARP cleavage, activation of caspases 3/7 and chromatin condensation. OC treatment in a dose dependent-manner induced expression of γH2AX, a marker of DNA damage, increased intracellular ROS production and caused mitochondrial depolarization. Moreover, the effects of OC were suppressed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Finally, OC was not toxic in primary normal human hepatocytes. In conclusion, OC treatment was found to exert a potent anticancer activity against HCC and CRC cells. Taken together, our findings provide preclinical support of the chemotherapeutic potential of EVOO against cancer.
The olive oil phenolic (-)-oleocanthal modulates estrogen receptor expression in luminal breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and synergizes with tamoxifen treatment.
Ayoub NM1, Siddique AB2, Ebrahim HY2, Mohyeldin MM2, El Sayed KA2.
Luminal breast cancer represents a therapeutic challenge in terms of aggressive disease and emerging resistance to targeted therapy. (-)-Oleocanthal has demonstrated anticancer activity in multiple human cancers. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of (-)-oleocanthal treatment on growth of luminal breast cancer cells and to examine the effect of combination of (-)-oleocanthal with tamoxifen. Results showed that (-)-oleocanthal inhibited growth of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D human breast cancer cells in mitogen-free media with IC50 values of 32.7, 24.07, and 80.93µM, respectively. Similarly, (-)-oleocanthal suppressed growth of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D cells in 17β-estradiol-supplemented media with IC50 values of 22.28, 20.77, and 83.91µM, respectively. Combined (-)-oleocanthal and tamoxifen treatments resulted in a synergistic growth inhibition of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D cells with combination index values of 0.65, 0.61, and 0.53 for each cell line, respectively. In-silico docking studies indicated high degree of overlapping for the binding of (-)-oleocanthal and 17β-estradiol to estrogen receptors, while (-)-oleocanthal and tamoxifen have distinguished binding modes. Treatment with 5mg/kg or 10mg/kg (-)-oleocanthal resulted in 97% inhibition of tumor growth in orthotopic athymic mice bearing BT-474 tumor xenografts compared to vehicle-treated animals. (-)-Oleocanthal treatment reduced total levels of estrogen receptors in BT-474 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, (-)-oleocanthal showed a potential beneficial effect in suppressing growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer and improving sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. These findings provide rational for evaluating the effect of (-)-oleocanthal in combination with endocrine treatments in luminal breast cancer.
Olive polyphenols: new promising agents to combat aging-associated neurodegeneration.
Casamenti F1, Stefani M2.
Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet and its main lipid component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Olive leaves and EVOO contain many phenolics effective against several aging and lifestyle-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, both in animal models and in humans. Recent research has shown that such protection stems from several effects, including (i.) the interference with the aggregation of peptides/proteins found in amyloid diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; (ii.) the protection of cells and tissues against aging-associated functional derangement (ion/redox homeostasis, aberrant cell signaling, etc.); (iii.) the transcriptional modulation through epigenetic modifications. Area covered: We used MEDLINE for literature reference; we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov to select clinical trials with olive oil and/or its polyphenols that suggested their potential particularly for what neuroprotective therapy is concerned. Expert commentary: We focus the relation between diet components, particularly olive polyphenols, and protection against the occurrence of the most widespread neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging. The need of more clinical studies in humans to confirm the results obtained in animal and cell models to definitely support the utility of these molecules to combat or to delay the symptoms associated to aging-associated neurodegeneration is also stressed.
Oleocanthal, a phenolic derived from virgin olive oil: a review of the beneficial effects on inflammatory disease.
Parkinson L1, Keast R2.
Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.